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Step by Step2000听力教程-2-答案unit5

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Unit 5 Part I A.

Shaping and Reshaping Warming up

Personality (I)

Tape-script: Tape-s -script:

W: Hey, Kevin. Help me fill out this personality survey. It'll be fun. M. Oh, I don't know ... W: Oh, come on... OK, here's the first one -- what should I put for

"aggressive"?
M. Uh-oh ... I ... I'd say "very." W: Very? Really?

M: Yeah, sure. Look at the way you drive!

have to drive like that in this city, or you're gonna be hit, because ...

M: Uh ... what's the next one?

M: Oh, not at all

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W: OK.

W: Really? Well, maybe just a little ... I mean, a lot of myself, I guess. M: OK, OK, so put "not very

M: But you can put "extremely" for the next one. W. W.What? Oh, "Kind"? M: Yes. Don't you think you're an extremely kind person?

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W: “ Selfish” Selfish”

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W: Well, OK, so I'm a very aggressive driver ... but ... you

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W: I am? OK, if you say so. Oh, look at this next one M. Oh, "patient" W: Yeah. M:Hmm ... I don't know. Sometimes you can be really patient, but other times you're not patient at all. Like, remember that time in line at the supermarket when you got... W. W.OK, OK. I get your point. I'll put "sort of. ' M. OK, that's right.

W. W.Next one... "jealous”. ' I guess I'm sort of jealous...

M. Sort of? I'd put "very. ' Remember how angry you got when

the roof ...

W: W:All right, all right. "Very. '

M. Oh, OK, what's the next one?

M: That's all?

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W: Yeah, but now it's your turn. B. Tape- script: TapeNumber 1 : George; George; W-- Woman G--George

W: So what are you going to do after you graduate, George? G: I'm going to start my own business . W: Oh, really? What type of business?

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W: That's all.

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my ex-girlfriend called the other day? I thought you're gonna raise

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G: Well, I haven't decided yet, but I know I'll be successful in anything I do. In fact, I'm going to be one of the top business people in town in less than five years. Just wait and see! I have everything it takes -I'm smart, I can organize people, and I'm full of ideas that can make money. Number2: Karen K--Karen

K: Hey! Look at this wallet on the sidewalk. Wow! There's lots of money

in it ... but no identification. Mmm ... I wonder how I can find the owner? I guess I'll take it to the police station and see if anyone's

Number 3: Pam M:--Man M:--Man

M: What are you doing tonight, Pam?

feel like going. I think I'll go shopping instead

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M: Oh? M: Huh!

M: Won't Bill get mad? P: Oh, I'm sure he can find something else to do

P: Besides, I really need some new clothes. I haven't bought any for nearly a month!

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P: Well, I was supposed to meet Bill after work for a movie, but I don't

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P-- Pam



report ed a lost wallet.

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C. Interviews Tape-script. TapeI--Interviewer F —Mr. Fisher Mr. B--Miss Burnes

I: Mr. Fisher, you are an accountant and earn a good enough salary to enable you to live comfortably. What does work mean to you? F: I regard it as a means to an end. Basically I'm a family man, and as long as I have a job which enables me to earn enough money to live well,

I'm happy. I find a comfortable life com pensates for the fact that I have a compensates

routine life and three weeks holiday per year. I suppose you could say I work to live.

how do you feel about Mr. Fisher's attitude towards his work? B: Personally, I couldn't work to live. I must enjoy whatever I worth doing.

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Part II

B: Definitely! It gives me the mental satisfaction I need and a role in society. Contrary to Mr. Fisher, I can say that I live to work. Self esteem Experiment Report Project: the development of self-esteem Subjects: young boys

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roles in your life?

I: In other words, Miss Burnes, work plays one of the most important

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I: Miss Burnes, as a school teacher in a working class area of London,

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Procedure Procedure: 1. testing (what): measure the boy’s abilities and how they felt about their own abilities 2. dividing (how?) : three groups – those with high self-esteem/ middle self-esteem/ low self-esteem 3. follow-up study (where and when?): in all situations at home/at work/in school/with friends Conversations: the behavior of the boys

1. boys with high self-esteem: active/ able to express ideas/ successful in school and in relations with other people /creative / led in discussion/

2. boys with middle self-esteem: like the boys with high self-esteem / express ideas freely/ saw the world as a good and happy place/ not sure of their own value

no love/ couldn’t express ideas/ afraid of anger/ no talk in discussion

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Findings

1. Three groups of boys act differently 2. High self-esteem does not depend on physical appearance / money/ size of family/ how much the mother at home but it depends on close relationship between the boys and the parents. Tape-script: Tape-sc pe-script:

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3. boys with low self-esteem: sad most time/ afraid to start activities/ felt

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interested in world problem / seldom tired or sick

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Scientists have learned a great deal about the parts of brain and their functions. They have also studied the development of the personality, for example, how a baby learns to love. In recent studies of two universities in the United States, scientists have investigated the development of selfesteem. Self-esteem is the respect a person has for himself, his belief in his

ability and in the value of what he does. The scientists studied self-esteem in young boys. They gave them many tests. These tests measured the boys' abilities and also how they felt about their own abilities. After the tests, the boys were divided into three groups -- those with high self-

The scientists continued to study the boys in all situations. They studied them at home, at work, in school, and with their friends. From their studies, the scientists made some observations. Boys

They were successful in school and in their relations with other people. In

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discussions, they led. They didn't just listen. They were interested in world problems. They were creative and believed that they could finish whatever they started. They seldom became tired or sick. In many ways, the boys with middle self-esteem were like the boys with high self-esteem. They too expressed their ideas freely and saw the world as a good and happy place. However, they were not sure of their own value as people. They did

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with high self-esteem were active. They were able to express their ideas.

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esteem, those with middle self-esteem and those with low self-esteem.

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their best work when they were sure that other people liked them. The boys with low serf-esteem were different from the other two groups. They were sad most of the time. They were afraid to start activities. They felt that no one loved them. They could not express their ideas. They were afraid of anger. In a discussion, they listened, but they didn't talk. The scientists asked, "How do some boys develop high selfesteem?" "What is different in their lives?" Some of the answers were

surprising. High self-esteem did not depend upon physical appearance, or money, or size of family. It did not depend upon how much the mother was at home. The scientists found that there was a closeness between the

interests in them, and spent time with them. They listened to their sons and gave them help when the boys asked for it. They knew their sons' friends. The sons knew that they were important to their parents. These

strict, but not harsh. They corrected their sons' behavior by rewards, not

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by punishment. They never took away their love. On the other hand, the parents of boys with low self-esteem let their sons do almost anything. If a boy made a mistake, the parents punished him harshly. The boys believed that their parents didn't love them. There were no definite rules. The family life of the boys with high self-esteem was democratic. The parents made rules, but they led in a kind and thoughtful way. They showed

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parents demanded good behavior. They made definite rules. They were

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boys with high self-esteem and their parents. Their parents showed real

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respect for their children's ideas, even when they did not agree with them. They let the boys give their opinions in discussions of family plans. These boys were productive citizens. Now these scientists are studying other groups of children. They want to learn how to help children with low selfesteem feel better about themselves. In this way, these children can become productive citizens too. Part III A. B. Balancing work and family

1. Who is responsible for helping the employees balance work and family?

2. What policies do some companies have that permit employees spend less time at work and more time at home? a. working part-time

c. setting the hours and days they work

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d. working from home by using computers 3. What special skills do Americans develop in balancing work and family? a. making the best use of personal and family time b. building trusting relationships at work c. asking supervisors and family members for help d. learning to make compromises in their lives

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b. two workers sharing one job

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the employees & the company

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Tapescript: Many working parents in America find it hard to meet the demands of their jobs and their families. They are faced with difficult choices about how much time to spend at work and at home. The issue of balancing work and family affects employees at all levels. It especially affects women and single parents. The Family and

Work Institute studied the question of who doe~ most of the work in the

home when both parents have jobs. It found that working women still do

most of the housework. For example, working women do 81 percent of the cooking. They do 78 percent of the cleaning. And women do 87

situation is even harder for the growing number of single mothers. They often do 100 percent of those jobs at home in addition to their jobs at work.

family, the employee or the company? Both are responsible. Every person

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has to decide what is right for him or her. However, it is the company's responsibility to permit discussion about the issue. Experts say more companies are trying to help their employees

meet the demands of work and family. Some companies have policies that permit employees to spend less time at work and more time at home. These policies include non-traditional work plans. For example, some

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Then, who is responsible for helping employees balance work and

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percent of the buying of food and other products for the home. The

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people work only part-time, which is less than 40 hours a week. Sometimes two workers share one job. Each person works 20 hours a week. Some people are able to set the hours and days they work. For example, they begin work very early in the morning, so they can be home in the afternoon. Or they work 10 hours a day for four days. Then they can spend three days of the week at home. And more and more employees are working from their homes by using computers.

Experts say balancing work and family is forcing Americans to

develop special skills. These include making the best use of personal and family time, building trusting relationships at work, and asking

means that Americans are learning to make compromises in their lives. They are learning that sometimes it is not possible to do it all or to have it all.

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supervisors and family members for help. Balancing work and family also

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